“一带一路”安全一 - 行业动态

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“一带一路”安全一

点击次数:    发布时间:2018-02-21
从目前中国公民前往的地区来看,大多数集中在亚洲和周边地区。根据2014年的数字,中国公民有89.5%前往亚洲地区,其中,港澳台地区占了70.4%;其他地区中欧洲为3.5%;非洲为3.0%;美洲为2.7%;大洋洲为1.1%;其他地区为0.2%。总体来看,欧美日等发达经济体的安全系数总体较高,而“一带一路”沿线国家和地区,由于法制不健全、局势动荡、恐怖活动频发、社会治安环境恶劣、黑社会犯罪组织活动猖獗,中亚、南亚、中东、非洲、东欧和拉美等地均存在不同程度的安全威胁,中国公民和法人经常面临人身安全的挑战。
In the area of the current Chinese citizens, most of them are concentrated in Asia and the surrounding areas. According to the figures in 2014, 89.5% of Chinese citizens went to Asia, including 70.4% of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, 3.5% of other regions, 3% of Africa, 2.7% of the Americas, 1.1% of Oceania and 0.2% of other areas. Overall, the overall safety coefficient is higher in Europe and other developed economies, "The Belt and Road along the countries and regions, because of the imperfect legal system, unrest, frequent terrorist activities, social security environment, the underworld crime organizations are rampant, Central Asia, South Asia, Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America and other places are there is a security threat in different degree, Chinese citizens and legal persons often face personal security challenges.
与中国公民旅游的反应类似,境外中资企业面临的挑战更加严峻。作为一个较晚推行经济走出去战略的国家,很多中国企业将投资对准了非洲、拉美等资源丰富但形势相对动荡、西方国家不敢进入的国家和地区,承担了比欧美国家更严峻的战乱、疾病和政治不稳定等风险。
Similar to the response of Chinese citizen tourism, the challenges facing overseas Chinese enterprises are more severe. As a late implementation of the economic strategy of going out, many enterprises will invest Chinese on Africa, Latin America and other rich in resources but the situation is relatively volatile, western countries did not dare to enter the country and area, undertake war, disease and political instability in Europe and the United States is more severe than the risk.
安全是一个发展变动的概念。在英文中,“安全”是“security”,主要指免于受任何侵害和威胁的状态。传统上,人们对安全的理解主要是指以政治和军事安全为主要内容的传统安全。冷战结束以后,随着两极对抗格局的崩溃,军事因素在关系中的地位相对下降,全球化的快速发展、全球性问题的出现和相互依存程度的加深,使社会面临着更复杂的安全挑战,人们的安全观念正在发生重大转变。安全内涵不仅包括传统的军事安全,还包括经济安全、文化安全、环境安全和信息安全等更为广泛的内涵,在范围上,安全的内涵也越来越超越一国国界之局限,具有了安全、地区安全、全球安全乃至人类安全的复杂内涵。因此,随着“一带一路”建设的推进,中国面临的安全挑战也发生了两个方面的重要变化:
Security is a concept of development and change. In English, "security" is "security", which mainly refers to the state of being exempt from any violation or threat. Traditionally, people's understanding of security mainly refers to the traditional security with the main content of political and military security. After the end of the cold war, with the collapse of the bipolar pattern, the status of the military factor in international relations, the relative decline of the global problems, the rapid development of globalization and the deepening of interdependence, the international social security challenges facing more complex security, people's concept is changing. The connotation of security includes not only the traditional military security, including economic security, cultural security, environmental security and information security is more extensive in scope, connotation, the connotation of security is also more and more beyond the confines of the territory of a country, has complicated connotation of international security, regional security and global security and human security. Therefore, with the "The Belt and Road" to promote the building of the security challenges facing the China vary in two aspects:
一是威胁的外部性转变为威胁的内部性。“一带一路”加快了中国化进程,安全风险已经呈现出一种全球化的趋势,跨越了生产和再生产,跨越了国家界限,成为一种带有新型的社会和政治动力的非阶级化的全球性风险,威胁正在从国外挑战转变为国内挑战。此种风险和安全威胁的内部化使得民族国家无从控制,也无从由它来化解此风险可能带来的不良后果。
One is that the externality of the threat is transformed into the internality of the threat. "The Belt and Road China" to accelerate the internationalization process, the security risk has shown a trend of globalization, across the production and reproduction, across national boundaries, becoming a global risk of a non class with new social and political power of the threat is from abroad into domestic challenge challenge. The internalization of such risks and threats of security makes it impossible for the national state to control it, nor can it be used to dissolve the possible adverse consequences of this risk.
二是安全的自助性转变为安全的互助性。“一带一路”模糊了国家的边界,也消解了传统上因无政府状态导致的安全困境压力。在传统安全观看来,无政府的存在,必然导致国家间的竞争和冲突,国家必须通过自助来维护自己的安全,国家只有通过自身的努力才能获得安全。“一带一路”通过推进沿线国家的互联互通,推动沿线国家的个体安全发展为系统安全、集体安全,使影响安全的因素进一步多样化、复杂化,安全具有综合性和系统性的特征,安全的化、地区化趋势增强。
The two is the change of the security self-help to the security of mutual assistance. "The Belt and Road" blurred the boundaries of the country, dispels the traditional security dilemma because of the pressure of international anarchy in the. In the view of traditional security, the existence of international anarchy inevitably leads to competition and conflict among nations. The state must maintain its own safety through self-help, and only by its own efforts can a country achieve safety. "The Belt and Road" by promoting interoperability along the country, promoting the individual development along the country's security system safety, collective security, factors that affect the safety of the further diversified and complicated characteristics of security is comprehensive and systematic, and enhance the international trend of safety area.
“一带一路”带来的沿线国家之间在安全特性的上述变化,要求维护国家安全的理念和哲学发生调整。安全威胁的内部性要求国家安全维护内容必须具有综合性,必须涵盖政治、经济、文化、生态、信息等各个领域;国家安全的互助性则要求国家安全维护方式必须具有复杂性,特别是正确处理国家安全与安全,国家与制度之间的关系,通过全面分析和妥善应对来自外部环境的机遇和挑战,善于利用制度和其他国家的条件,充分利用有利因素,积极化解不利因素,努力变挑战为机遇。
"The change in the safety characteristics between The Belt and Road" brought along the country, maintaining national security requirements and adjust the occurrence of philosophy and philosophy. The internal security threat of national security requirements to maintain content must be comprehensive, must cover the fields of politics, economy, culture, ecology, information and so on; mutual national security requires national security maintenance must have complexity, especially the correct handling of national security and international security, the relationship between national and international institutions. Through a comprehensive analysis and properly deal with the opportunities and challenges from the external environment, make good use of the international system and other national conditions, make full use of favorable factors, actively resolve the unfavorable factors, trying to turn the challenges into opportunities.
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